A metabolic response can occur with respect to individual cells, a gland, an organ, or a process such as the cardiovascular system.

The major absorbed end products of food digestion are monosaccharides, mainly glucose, monoacylglycerol, long-chain fatty acids, small peptides and amino acids. Once in the bloodstream, different cells can metabolize these nutrients.

Metabolic responses and Nutrition focuses on the integration of nutrition, exercise physiology, clinical investigations, and molecular and cellular biochemistry of metabolism.